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The ascendancy of the Persians over the Arabs, that is to say of the con-
quered over the victors, had already for a long while been in course of prepara-
tion ; it became complete when the Abbasids, who owed their elevation to
the Persians, ascended the throne. These princes made it a rule to be on their
guard against the Arabs, and to put their trust only in foreigners, Persians,
especially those of Khorasan, with whom, therefore, they had to make friends.
ttY, Histoire d*Islamisme.

The End of Moslem Unity.  The Omayyad dynasty
and the empire of Islam were interchangeable terms, but
this is not true of the Abbasid dynasty, which was never
acknowledged in Spain and from the first but inter-
mittently in Africa. In Persia, as will be seen, inde-
pendent dynasties arose as the Caliph grew weak, until
the appalling cataclysm of the Mongol invasion, sweeping
across Iran, ended the degenerate house of Abbas and
with it the Caliphate.
A second fact of special importance, so far as Persia
is concerned, is that the Abbasids owed their success to
armies raised in Khorasan, on which they relied to main-
tain the dynasty against the Arabs. The martial vigour
of the latter had naturally deteriorated, owing to the
luxury which their extraordinary successes had induced
and the system whereby they were maintained, without
working, at the expense of the Moslem empire, just as in
later days the Manchus were maintained in China. So
hostile was the dynasty to the Arabs that Abu Muslim's
orders from Ibrahim, the brother of Abul Abbas, were to
V see that there be not one left in Khorasan whose tongue